Natural Polyphenols in the treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease – A review of the Ph.D. thesis of Dr. Smriti Tripathi
By Arjun Dutta, B. Pharm., Ph.D., Dean and Professor, School of Pharmacy
Cognitive impairment, along with long-term memory defects, is the key feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that affects more than millions of individuals in this world. In AD, the destruction of neuronal activity in the brain occurs due to the formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and extracellular amyloid plaques accumulation. Oxidative stress, induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), is also a vital hallmark of AD. These ROS cause oxidative destruction of various cellular components like DNA, protein and membrane lipids, which is the representative feature of aging and progression of AD.
In a study by Dr. Smriti Tripathi, the efficacy of polyphenols such as Apple Cider Vinegar (Phenolic compound) and Chrysin (Flavonoid) are also evaluated against the above-mentioned hallmarks of AD using cell culture and animal models. The main focus is on Alzheimer’s disease pathology, molecular mechanisms, risk factors and treatments that affect AD pathology. It also includes polyphenols and their biological activity against various complications. The data demonstrates the efficacy of vii polyphenols (Chrysin and Apple Cider Vinegar) against various diseases, including AD in the animal and cellular model. This study has mainly targeted the four important pathological hallmarks of AD, namely amyloid aggregation, NFTs formation, cholinergic defects and oxidative stress.
Dr. Tripathi’s work includes the procurement of polyphenols (ACV and Chrysin), quantitative phytochemical analysis, invitro antioxidant property of test compounds as well as detailed information on the cell culture and the animal model protocols, staining procedure, antioxidant associated biochemical tests, AChE activity, histopathological studies and the biogenic amine neurotransmitter analysis have been explained appropriately.
This study demonstrated the Anti-Alzheimer’s potency of polyphenols, including Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV) and Chrysin. This study has displayed that comparatively, ACV has higher antioxidant potential and is consistently found to be more effective than synthetic flavonoid Chrysin as well as anti-Alzheimer’s medication Rivastigmine in both in vitro and in vivo analysis. This neuroprotective effect of ACV is mostly associated with the alteration of the cholinergic neuronal system, protection from cellular toxicity, protection against tauopathy, amyloid aggregation and attenuation of oxidative stress. The ACV also significantly mitigates Zn with high-fat diet (HFD) induced and scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments and oxidative stress by providing antioxidant potential, anti-amnestic effects and anti-AChE action. The current study was the first step towards a larger goal of developing AD medication from a natural product.
The above-mentioned study is a review of the Ph.D. thesis of Dr. Smriti Tripathi